When a cell phone or other mobile device connects to the nearest cell tower, the communication takes place over something called a RAN — a radio access network. From the cell tower, the signal is then routed to a fiber or wireless backhaul connection to the core network. RANs
RANs are proprietary to each equipment manufacturer. Open RAN, on the other hand, allows for interoperability that allows service providers to use non-proprietary subcomponents from a choice of vendors. That adds complexity to the network and changes the risk landscape for wireless communications.